Having been inspired by the Splunk blog post Maintaining State of the Union, I have been following this pattern of running frequent searches with short time-bounds, merging the results with a stored table and writing the table back out again. One of the interesting but less broadly-applicable bits of that article is keeping track of open connections and removing them when a close event is logged. A more general example might have been to expire old entries based on a stored timestamp.
The following search does just that–it retains the relay name & recipient domain pair for 24 hours. This is a search I have recently put into use.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 eventtype=sendmail_message_sent OR eventtype=postfix_message_sent | eval recip_domain=lower(recip_domain) | eval relay_name=lower(relay_name) | dedup relay_name, recip_domain | eval last_seen=_time | inputlookup append=t smtp_relays.csv | where last_seen > relative_time(now(), "-24h") | dedup relay_name, recip_domain sortby -last_seen | fields relay_name, recip_domain, last_seen | fields - _* | outputlookup smtp_relays.csv
This is a more complex search than necessary for pedagogical purposes, so let’s try one a little simpler that should also work out of the box, without my defined eventtypes and field extractions. This one will just maintain a list of hosts and sourcetypes that have been seen with those sourcetypes.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 host=* sourcetype=* | dedup host, sourcetype | eval last_seen=_time | inputlookup append=t host_sourcetypes.csv | where last_seen > relative_time(now(), "-24h") | dedup host, sourcetype sortby -last_seen | fields host, sourcetype, last_seen | fields - _* | outputlookup host_sourcetypes.csv
Let’s walk through this line by line. The first line obviously finds all events that have both host and sourcetype (which should be all events, since Splunk add those at index time). The dedup removes all but the latest unique pairs of <host, sourcetype>. While not strictly necessary, this dedup helps performance considerably as it gives us a small working set of data, so that later when we merge, sort and dedup again, we’re only doing it over the handful of unique pairs instead of all of the events.
The fourth line loads the data from host_sourcetypes.csv; this will cause a warning the first time it is run because the input file does not exist yet. Next the where removes all events that are older than 24 hours. Finally, we dedup sort and dedup the results again. Any pairs that have newer events are updated, any pairs that were older than 24 hours are dropped and any pairs that were new are added.
On the third line we copied the _time to last_seen, so that in line 8 we could throw away all fields that start with underscore because they are retained by default with the fields command on line 7.
Finally, we write it all back out to the lookup file host_sourcetypes.csv.
Posted: 06 Oct 2012